New Challenges for Nomadic Civilization and Pastoral Nomadism in Mongolia

Linked with International Institute for the Study of Nomadic Civilizations IISNC.

Published on IISNC, by Acad. B. Enkhtuvshin, not dated.

3 excerpts of 19 pages: The present paper is to demonstrate the results and conclusions of three international research expeditions named Transformation of the Central Asian Nomads, Cultural Anthropological and Ecological Comparative Study of Nomadic Life and Cultural Heritage of the Central Asian Nomads- organized by the International Institut …

… Socio-economic and civilizational changes: The international expeditions in charge of socio-economic and civilization changes aimed at a broad target of labor division of pastoral nomadism and nomadic herders, standard of their living and the tendency of the transformation in the Central Asian nomadic civilization.

Considering the similarities and distinctions of socio-economic and civilization factors in Russia, Mongolia and China, the researchers in the team established the methods and principles of the research work.

As for Mongolia and Buryatia of the Russian Federation, (Selenge, Tuv, and Khentii provinces of Mongolia and Khyagt, Selenge and Ivolge regions of Russia) the general similarity is that both of them are in the transition period from socialism into market economy. In other words, both Mongolia and Buryatia are making their transition from centrally planned economy into the free market relations. But as with the social problems in rural areas and the way of dealing with them, difference is visible.


The main economy in the localities involved in the research was consisting of pastoral nomadism, agricultural cultivation and fishing industry based on nomadic and settled types of life. In this respect, one of the purpose of our researches was to identify the combined existence of nomadic and sedentary civilization in Central Asia and the on going transformation in the above-mentioned combination and finally, the links of these factor with the change and development of the nomadic civilization.

To reach this purpose, the researchers completed the following tasks:

  • A) Blanks of the statistic information and Socio-economic tendencies by administrative units were prepared and the collected information was analyzed;
  • B) Sociological information was taken from the local people using detailed questionnaire forms and the results were systematically studied;
  • C) Each researcher kept individual observation and diary notes on their interested fields or themes and then presented their reports.

On the basis of the preliminary results of our research, the changes of socio-economy and civilization of the Central Asian nomads can be demonstrated in the following topics …

… Issues on Farms: In the recent years the farms specialized on meat and milk processing, and farms for chicken and pork have being developed along with the traditional nomadic livestock husbandry. Also, the combination of livestock husbandry and cultivation has been established.
We think that farms should be built and developed in the regional centers and capital city, as well in the industrial and agricultural areas. And, it is really important to establish a market network between fodder factories, farms, processing factories and consumers in order to develop the intensive agriculture. To bring from abroad and locate the best breeds of milk, meat, wool and cashmere and use advanced biotechnology will be the very efficient way for the Mongolian economy. One of the most concerned problem is fodder processing. It requires developing the processing of cultivation wastes and increase production of nourished fodders and feed for livestock.

The establishment of special farms of pedigree livestock with the help and support of veterinary services and pedigree stations will increase the competitive capacity of farms in the markets, and improve the quality of livestock breeds. Another main factor for the development of farms in Mongolia is to prepare and train specialized farm managers and farmers basing on the lessons and practices of the region as well many other countries. (full text, 19 pages).

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