Kashmir: Conflict in a Peaceful Valley

Published on Worldpress.org, by Ershad Mahmud from Common Ground News, February 27, 2009.

… Kashmir is comprised of three distinct religions and regions — In Kashmir Valley, 98 percent of the population is Muslim; in Jammu, 60 percent of the population is Hindu; and in Ladakh, 49 percent is Buddhist. Kashmiris have always been proud of their diverse cultures, traditions and religions, with Hindus, Christians, Buddhists and Muslims living together in communal harmony. Even Gandhi lauded the Kashmiris for their peace-loving nature and called Kashmir “a ray of hope in the darkness.”

While the roots of the present conflict trace back to the time of partition, the more recent violent struggle began when Kashmiri Muslims, emboldened by the Afghan success in the fight against the Soviets, launched a similar movement against India in the late 1980’s.

The ensuing 18 years of armed revolt created religious divides where previously there were none, and caused 200,000 Kashmiri Hindus to flee the Valley. Eventually, however, the armed struggle waned, due to international pressure and decreased popular support for violent tactics in the wake of 9/11.

In 2008, mass uprisings in Kashmir began again when the Indian government proposed donating a large portion of Kashmiri land for a Hindu shrine. Kashmiri Muslims saw this as a plan to change the demographic of Kashmir, which would inevitably result in new Hindu settlements and began protesting against India. Despite some casualties, these protests remained largely peaceful.

On August 18, 2008, over half a million people took to the streets of Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir, and marched to the office of the UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) at the Sonawar settlement in Srinagar, to remind the world that the issue of Kashmir was still pending.

These mass protests attracted support from Indian civil society groups and attention from the international community. Kashmiri stakeholders, including militant groups, enthusiastically welcomed this renewed international interest in the resolution of the Kashmir conflict. Even Syed Salahudin, chief of Hizb ul Mujahideen (the Mujahideen Party), on behalf of the United Jihad Council — a group of several militant organizations — stated that Obama and Rice’s statements were encouraging in bringing about a resolution to the Kashmir conflict.

In addition, the recently-elected chief minister of Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir, Omar Abdullah, said in his swearing-in ceremony on Jan. 5 that he wholeheartedly supported normalization between Islamabad and New Delhi, and publicly pledged that he would facilitate the settlement of the Kashmir issue.

While these non-violent demonstrations have attracted the world’s attention, given Obama’s recent acknowledgment of the conflict, words alone cannot help; concrete actions must be taken by the United States to facilitate lasting peace in the region.

As a first step, the Obama administration should appoint a special envoy to Kashmir. Indeed, the announcement was made at the end of January that the mandate of United States envoy to South Asia Richard Holbrooke would not include Kashmir, leaving the position open for someone else. This envoy should encourage India and Pakistan to include Kashmiri representatives in consultation, and promote dialogue between the two countries throughout the process. (full text).

(By re-igniting the Pakistani-Indian peace process and engaging Kashmiris in dialogue — along with Pakistanis and Indians — the United States can provide assistance in resolving the Kashmir problem, which has thus far been a major hurdle in establishing peace in the region and fostering healthy relations between the two nuclear states … Ershad Mahmud is a Kashmiri political analyst based in Islamabad, Pakistan).

Links:

The Partition of India: on wikipedia, on Emory.edu, on Boloji.com, on Quantara.de, on Google Book-results;

Indian reunification;

British East India Company;

British India;

List of Indian Princely States;

Indian independence movement;

Pakistan Movement;

East Bengal;

History of Bangladesh;

History of India;

History of Pakistan;

Indo-Pakistani War of 1947;

India (disambiguation).

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