some Publications

Picked up in Weitzenegger’s newsletter of December 2006. To read many interesting news and articles, go to ‘The website for International Development Cooperation‘, and its (english) Newsletter.

Published on this Weitzenegger’s page of Publications:

Business environment and labour market outcomes in Europe and Central Asia countries. New firm entry has been fundamental for job creation in the transition economies. Hence, the urge to reform the framework in which firms operate. This paper aims to improve our understanding of the business environment of the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries, as well as to assess which of the institutions that shape it are most important for labor market performance. To achieve that aim, the author groups the institutions into those affecting firm entry and those affecting business survival and growth, and proceeds to construct indicators to summarize them.

EBRD’s Transition Report 2006. The new Transition report studies the financial sector in transition countries. It analyses how financial systems have been restructured, their impact on the economy and private sector development, and the introduction of new financial services. The special theme of the report is devoted to an analysis of the financial sector in the transition countries. Making use of several unique data sources, the Report looks at how financial systems have been restructured over the past 15 years, their impact on the economy and private sector development and the introduction of new financial services.

The Policy Framework for Investment (PFI). This policy brief by the OECD explains what PFI is, who developed it, who it is for, and how it is used. The PFI is a comprehensive multilaterally-backed approach for improving conditions to attract investments.

Trade Liberalization And Economic Reform In Developing Countries: Structural Change Or De-Industrialization? The paper analyses economic performance of a sample of developing countries that have undertaken trade liberalization and structural reforms since the early 1980s with the objective of expansion of exports and diversification in favour of manufacturing sector. The results obtained are varied. Forty per cent of the sample countries experienced rapid expansion of exports of manufactured goods. In a minority of these countries, mostly East Asian, rapid export growth was also accompanied with fast expansion of industrial supply capacity and upgrading. By contrast, the experience of the majority of the sample countries, mostly in Africa and Latin America, has not been satisfactory.

Local Economic Development Case Studies. Local economic development (LED) strategies should be designed to meet the specific needs of each community. However, the experiences of cities and towns in both developed and developing countries can provide lessons. The case studies from this World Bank website are identified by their primary LED project or program objective. Through this web page the World Bank staff seeks to build a library of case studies that share the success stories and the ‘not so successful’ stories from those who have developed and implemented a LED strategy. These case studies are either directly linked to another website, a PDF document link, or an analysis of a specific region using the five step LED strategic approach.

Local Financial Development and the Aid-Growth Relationship
. With official development assistance (ODA) set to rise as countries strive to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), aid effectiveness remains an important area of development policy. An increasing number of studies support the notion that ODA can contribute to growth in a nonlinear relationship. In this paper, Development Gateway investigates a new hypothesis regarding this relationship: That deeper financial markets in aid-recipient countries facilitate the management of aid flows, thereby enhancing aid effectiveness. An empirical analysis, using a panel data set, finds robust support for the hypothesis.

What drives growth in the transition countries? Economic growth has varied widely across the transition countries since 1989. Central Europe has generally performed better than south-eastern Europe, which in turn has out-performed Russia, Ukraine and the other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). But what accounts for these differences? And what has been the role of institutions? This leaflet summarises a series of papers, sponsored by the Japan-Europe Cooperation Fund (JCEF), which focus on the role of institutions in the transition context.

The impact of crime on the enterprise sector: Transition versus non-transition countries.

Crime remains a significant problem in the transition countries. This paper looks at the impact of organised crime and street crime on the enterprise sector. It finds that countries with high unemployment and poorly developed micro enterprise sectors have the highest rates of crime. The paper also highlights the negative impact crime has on foreign direct investment and job creation. EBRD Working Paper, Libor Krkoska, Katrin Robeck (July 2006).

The dos and don’ts of sustainable banking: a BankTrack manual. Aimed at the banking community, this BankTrack manual provides an overview of actions these institutions can take to become more sustainable. Its starting point is the Collevecchio Declaration. This declaration was launched in January 2003 and endorsed by over 200 civil society organisations. It outlines the unique role and responsibility the financial sector has in advancing sustainability and continues to be civil society’s benchmark of measuring sustainability in the banking sector. Following the six commitments framed in the Collevecchio Declaration, this manual outlines what banks should do to make their operations more sustainable. The six commitments are: responsibility, accountability, transparency, sustainable markets and governance, and ‘do no harm’. Each section provides practical steps forward, paying attention to both content and implementation aspects. These steps apply to all activities undertaken by banks, whether they be retail banking, commercial banking, investment banking or asset management.

The growth of commercial microfinance 2004 – 2006. Table of contents: 1. Highlights, 2. Equity Investments in MFIs: A Global Look, 3. MFI ownership structure.

EPAs and investment. This Christian Aid report highlights the negotiations around rules-based investment criteria and the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA) between the European Commission (EC) and African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. The report argues that rules-based agreements for investment can limit countries’ ability to manage foreign investment which fits with its development strategy.

States and Economic Development
: What Role? What Risks?

Documentation of the ODI event. Policies towards Horizontal Inequalities in Post-Conflict Reconstruction. This UNU-WIDER paper by Frances Stewart is concerned with one major requirement in reconstruction policies that is often overlooked: that is to design policies which will reduce the horizontal inequalities which are often a major source of conflict. If they do not, there will be a danger of renewed mobilization around them and a further outbreak of violence. The paper reviews the range of policies which would contribute to reducing horizontal inequalities. It also considers some political issues surrounding such policies, including potential political risks which can arise in adopting these types of policy.

Local/Regional Economic Development in South-Eastern Europe
. Promoting region-specific development, whether in the framework of economic development or by strengthening administrative structures, is one of the most important themes of Development Cooperation. The contributions (concepts, instruments, and lessons learned) presented in this collection provide an impressive insight into the wide range of GTZ’s experiences and its abilities in the field of local/regional economic development in South-Eastern Europe.

Time for a Change – Germany’s Bilateral Investment Treaty Programme and Development Policy. Mahnaz Malik has analyzed the German BITs against the backdrop of the linkage between investment and sustainable development. According to her analysis, the German investment treaties concentrate solely on enhancing investor protection, without giving due consideration to the development policy aims of the German government. She deplores the restrictive impact on host governments’ ‘policy space” and their ability to regulate in order to protect their development interests. And she calls for a revision of the German BIT programme with a focus on criteria of ‘policy coherence”. FES Occasional Paper 27.

CGAP Paper Examines 5 Global Forces That Will Shape the Future of Microfinance
As world attention focuses more and more on microfinance, it is all the more important that we understand the global forces shaping the industry’s future. From technology and demographic trends to the rise in global social activism and powerful middle-income countries, these forces are played out through four scenarios in ‘Financial Inclusion 2015: Four Scenarios for the Future of Microfinance.’

CGAP Technology Program to Support ‘Branchless Banking’ Projects Technology has helped reduce the cost of delivering financial services, creating exciting opportunities for delivering these services to millions more of the world’s poor. CGAP’s Technology Program invites concept notes for projects that test technology-based approaches to delivering financial services, especially in the most challenging markets not yet reached by microfinance. The deadline for the first round of proposals is January 2, 2007.

Challenges in Modernizing the Tax System – Nicaragua (In Spanish): IADB Beginning in the mid-90s Nicaragua focused on accelerating its transition from a state run economy to a market based one. It began this process under economic and social conditions that were difficult. A fiscal deficit of 8.4%, a conflicting situation with regard to property rights, and a housing deficit of over 400,000 units. It was obvious that healthy tax revenues were needed to repair and maintain basic infrastructure throughout the country. The structural reforms implemented during those years stabilized the economy and reduced inflation. By 1999 tax revenues grew by 19% but later on deteriorated to 15% in 2000 and 12% in 2001.

Exploiting Opportunities in an Uncertain Environment – Afghanistan, World Bank. In a post conflict environment, attracting new foreign and domestic firms is central to private sector development. New decisions about investment usually depend on the availability of five basic factors:

  • political and economic stability and security;
  • clear unambiguous regulations;
  • reasonable tax rates that are equitably enforced;
  • access to finance and infrastructure;
  • and an appropriately skilled work force.

In Afghanistan, these conditions are lacking. The challenge facing the government of Afghanistan in addressing these constraints and in turn attracting further foreign and domestic investment cannot be underestimated.

BOAM’s Experience with Value Chain Promotion. Business Organisations and their Access to Markets (BOAM) is a private sector development programme of The Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) in Ethiopia. The BOAM Programme will shortly wind up its pilot phase and get into expansion phase counting on its achievements and the lessons taken form the former. The pilot phase of the programme has been promoting four value chains namely: Oilseeds & Edible Oil, Honey & other Bee Products, Milk & Dairy Products and Perennial Crops with specific focus on Pineapple.

Alliances and Joint Ventures: Patterns of Internationalization for Developing Country Enterprises. This UNIDO training package is addressed to entrepreneurs and policymakers of developing countries. Part One of the training package presents the international development scenario, the competitive environment and the drivers for global expansion of enterprises. It highlights the patterns of multinational expansion, the various types of inter-firm collaboration agreement, the global manufacturing strategies of multinational enterprises and the related challenges and opportunities for developing countries. In this context, Part One presents the role of global value chains and global production networks as elements of global operations management by multinational enterprises and as vehicles for technological development of firms of developing countries. Attention is also given to the role of the governments of developing countries in creating suitable locational conditions for multinational enterprises and in providing critical support to domestic enterprises in their path for technological capability building and internationalization.
Part Two will follow shortly.

Impact of Financial Cooperation. 9th Evaluation Report ‘Paving ways – Developing potentials’ just published 71% of projects financed are successful. High developmental impact needs innovative approaches.

Strategies and Structures for Commercial Banks in Microfinance. One of the critical decisions that bankers looking to serve the microenterprise market niche must make is whether to do microlending in house or through some sort of external organization such as a service company or subsidiary. Up until now there really has not been a comprehensive set of guidelines available on how to make this crucial choice. In addition to providing such guidelines, in this paper Glenn Westley discusses other best practices banks should follow in order to be successful in microlending.

Gender equality in the labour market: attitudes to women’s work. HWWI Research Paper by Sylke Viola Schnepf.

A Resource Guide for Technology-based Economic Development (SSTI, US). Positioning University as Drivers, Fostering Entrepreneurship, Increasing Access to Capital. Prepared for the Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, by the State Science and Technology Institute (SSTI), this resource guide provides a comprehensive overview of the main instruments and methodologies adopted in the U.S., at local or state level, to promote a Technology Based Economic Development (TBED), focusing on three main pillars of a tech-based economy: intellectual infrastructure, capital, and entrepreneurial culture.


India held back by wall of instability, June 01, 2006, Asia Times Online;

It’s war by any other name, July 15, 2006, Asia Times Online;

Google-video: Roger Kennedy, The Political History of North America from 25,000BC to 12,000AD, The Long Now Foundatio, 1 hr 18 min – 25-Feb-2005.

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