Linked with Paul Beersmans – Belgium, with Association for Solidarity with Jammu and Kashmir BASJAK, and with JAMMU AND KASHMIR, A SMOULDERING CONFLICT … .
Excerpt: … The problem in Kashmir, he observed, is often represented primarily as a matter between India and Pakistan and framed around the issues of the legitimacy of Kashmir’s accession to India at independence. But this is not the problem today, he argued, as circumstances since the accession have changed such that the insurgency is now largely fueled by local grievances. In the current situation, the debate ought to focus on the experiences and aspirations of the people in the Kashmir valley, Habibullah pointed out. The ethnic and religious diversity in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, which is divided into three regions, has contributed to the complexity of the Kashmir problem. The majority of Jammu and Kashmir’s population of 5.4 million is resident in the Kashmir valley … (full text).
The Shirya Bhatt Mission Hospital, in Jammu;
Kundan Lal Chowdhury MD – India / Kashmir;
Belgian Association for Solidarity with Jammu and Kashmir BASJAK; scroll down to find:
Kashmir in a nutshell: English version,
Nederlandstalige versie/Dutch version,
and different Reports of study tours (1994 – 2006) *,
and Observer Mission Legislative Assembly Elections Jammu and Kashmir State, September-October 2002, an eyewitness report,
and differents statements for the Human Rights Commission in Geneva (1995 – 2005) *, and New: Updated Photo Gallery *. Etc. (For full texts, click on the links on the Homepage).
* there are many different links for each of this item.
Blogger’s Kashmir, (scroll down for good photos).
Some more Kashmiri Links:
Dismal World, A bus from Pakistan carrying a sick child and 27 passengers ended its historic journey in the Indian capital, marking the establishment of road links between the two South Asian rivals, July 2003;
The Plight of Conflict-Induced Internally Displaced Persons in India;
Encyclopedia Kashmir – Land, Economy, and Government on factmonster;
INDO-PAK ECONOMIC TIES: GROUND REALITIES;
Kashmiri Pandits’ Association, Mumbai, India;
Southasian Economic Integration and the role of Indian Punjab, a 15 pages pdf;
In praise of Kashmir: Kashmiri history 101.
Kashmir’s short History:
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Historically the term Kashmir was used to refer to the valley lying between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range. Today Kashmir refers to a much larger area that includes the regions of Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladakh. Kashmir State also incorporates the Pakistani administered parts of Poonch, Rawalakot, Muzafarabad, Jammu (this is a mistake in wikipedia !!), Gilgit and Baltistan regions and also incorporates the China occupied part of Asai Chin. The main “Vale of Kashmir” is a low-lying fertile region surrounded by magnificent mountains and fed by many rivers. It is renowned for its natural beauty and quaint lifestyle.
Kashmir was originally and still is one of the most important centres of Hinduism and later also became an important centre of Buddhism. Kashmir retained a strong influence of Buddhism despite the influence of Kashmir Saivism and the various Sufi Orders of Islam. The Rishi Order emerged as the most dominant Sufi Order in Kashmir because of its assimilation of Buddhist practices. The founder of the Order, Nunda Rishi or Sheikh Nooruddin Wali, is the patron saint of Kashmir. Nund Rishi wrote a poem in the praise of the Buddha and was considered to be the spiritual heir of Lal Ded, the Kashmiri Saivite saint. He also had many differences with the Kubrawiyya Sufi Order which was brought to Kashmir by Syed Ali Hamdani in the fourteenth century.
Srinagar, the ancient capital, lies alongside Dal Lake and is famous for its canals and houseboats. Srinagar (alt. 1,600 m. or 5,200 ft.) served as a favoured summer capital for many foreign conquerors who found the heat of the Northern Indian plains in the summer season to be oppressive. Just outside the city are the beautiful Shalimar, Nishat and Chashmashahi gardens created by Mughal emperors.
Today, after the exodus of the Hindus in the 1990s, Kashmir valley is 99% Muslim. There is still a significant Kashmiri Hindu presence in some regions of Jammu (Jammu is the winter capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Srinagar is the summer capital). The First Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, was of Kashmiri lineage. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif is of Kashmiri lineage as was Allama Iqbal, the famous Urdu poet.
The region is divided among three countries in a bitter territorial dispute: Pakistan controls the northwest portion (Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir), India controls the central and southern portion (Jammu and Kashmir) and Ladakh, and the People’s Republic of China controls the northeastern portion (Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract).
India controls the majority of the Siachen Glacier (higher peaks), whereas Pakistan controls the lower peaks.
Though these regions are in practice administered by their respective claimants, India has never formally recognised the accession of the areas claimed by Pakistan and China. India claims those areas, including the area “ceded” to China by Pakistan in the Trans-Karakoram Tract in 1963, are a part of its territory, while Pakistan claims the region, excluding Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract.
Pakistan argues that Kashmir is culturally and religiously aligned with Pakistan (Kashmir is a Muslim region), while India bases its claim to Kashmir off Maharaja Hari Singh’s decision to give Kashmir to India during the India-Pakistan split. Kashmir is considered one of the world’s most dangerous territorial disputes due to the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan.
The two countries have fought several declared wars over the territory. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 established the rough boundaries of today, with Pakistan holding roughly one-third of Kashmir, and India two-thirds. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 began with a Pakistani attempt to seize the rest of Kashmir, erroneously banking on support from then-ally the United States. Both resulted in stalemates and UN-negotiated ceasefires.
More recent conflicts have resulted in success for India; it gained control of the Siachen glacier after a low-intensity conflict that began in 1984, and Indian forces repulsed a Pakistani/Kashimir guerrilla attempt to seize positions during the Kargil War of 1999. This defeat led to the coup d’etat of Pervez Musharraf in Pakistan. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, fought primarily over the independence of Bangladesh on the other side of India, peripherally involved Kashmir. Facing defeat in Bangladesh, Pakistan invaded Kashmir, but India repulsed the attempt and gained Pakistani territory (which it returned at the end of the war).
The rest of this article will, for the sake of clarity, refer to the parts of Kashmir administered by India, Pakistan and China as “Indian Kashmir”, “Pakistani Kashmir”, and “Chinese Kashmir” respectively. By this nomenclature, the word “Kashmir” in “Indian Kashmir” is used in a general sense to refer to what India calls “Jammu and Kashmir”.
See more about on all these sub-titles on wikipedia: Etymology; History: modern history, current status, Area and subdivisions, Demographics, Historical perspective into the people of the valley, Culture and cuisine, Economy, Tourism, References, Further Reading, See also, External links – all as full text on wikipedia.