Egypt: Country in confusion

Published on Al-Ahram weekly online, by Khaled Dawoud, 2 – 8 February 2012.

The protesters, who headed to parliament building in demonstrations from different districts of Cairo, mainly belonged to leftist and liberal groups who insist that they were the ones who sparked the 25 January Revolution that started in Tahrir Square a year ago, only later joined by Brotherhood supporters when it became clear that the tide was turning against Mubarak.  

Their main demand was the immediate transferal of power from the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) to an elected president, disregarding an earlier timetable that set the transfer at 30 June.

After a series of bloody confrontations between army soldiers and mainly young protesters in which nearly 100 people were killed between October and December, the protesters said that they had no trust left that SCAF would remain committed to any timetable, or that it would not try to influence the process of drafting a new constitution that is supposed to start in early March in order to maintain its long-standing vested interests. Besides the now regular chant of “Down with military rule”, demonstrators also repeated one short slogan: “Hand over power”.

However, for Muslim Brotherhood supporters who blocked all the main roads leading to the parliament in cooperation with Army Forces and anti-riot police who stood behind their lines, the demonstrations they confronted were mainly aimed at sabotaging the results of the latest elections, and they chanted in return: “The people chose Muslim Brotherhood MPs”.

The result was repeated rounds of clashes between the two sides, leaving nearly 100 people wounded, mostly lightly.

The protesters, who claimed they derived their legitimacy from the “Midan”, or the Arabic word for square in reference to Tahrir Square, alleged that the Muslim Brotherhood supporters physically attacked a number of women taking part in recent anti-SCAF demonstrations. Others alleged that Muslim Brotherhood loyalists performed the role of anti-riot police during Mubarak’s days, except for the absent black uniform, and that they had even went as far as using tasers in order to disperse the crowd and keep them from reaching the parliament building. That charge was strongly denied by a spokesman for the Muslim Brotherhood group … //

The widening gap between secular and political Islamic groups in Egypt coincided with clear confusion over the timetable of handing over power from SCAF to an elected president and the drafting of a new constitution. After the bloody clashes that took place in front of the Cabinet building in mid-December, in which 18 people were killed, SCAF had announced that both houses of parliament, the People’s Assembly and the Shura Council, would meet on 28 February to start the process of electing 100 members who would form a committee to draft a new constitution. The door for nominations for president, according to SCAF’s plan, would open in April, and elections would be held in late June according to rules set in the new constitution.

Anti-SCAF protesters who were likely to continue daily demonstrations, at least up until the anniversary of Mubarak’s removal on 11 February, insist on holding early presidential elections, and that voting should take place in April and not late June as SCAF announced. But that proposal was not agreed upon even among anti-SCAF groups who remain clearly divided. Mansour Hassan, head of the Advisory Council that was formed by SCAF two months ago in order to assist the army generals in decision-making, said it made more sense to draft a constitution first in order to specify the powers of the president, the parliament and other political bodies. He added that members of the Advisory Council had presented a number of proposals on how to speed up the political process of electing the president, but he refused to provide details.

However, sources close to the council told Al-Ahram Weekly that they had proposed opening the door for nominations for the presidency in early March, to allow a reasonable period for campaigning, and more important, to calm fears among anti-SCAF groups that it was not serious about handing over power on time … (full text).


Thailand: In 2012 lèse majesté will be litmus test for democracy, published on, by Giles Ji Ungpakorn, January 2, 2012.

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