TAJIKISTAN

For informations about Central Asia, stated by Human Rights Watch, go to http://hrw.org/doc?t=central_asia

The informations given here are out of the CIA website, http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ti.html, Tajikistan = latest updated May 17, 2005:

Background: Tajikistan has completed its transition from the civil war that plagued the country from 1992 to 1997. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the region. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace.

Geography:
Coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E;
Area: total: 143,100 sq km (land: 142,700 sq km, water: 400 sq km);
Area: comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin;
Land boundaries: total: 3,651 km;
Border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km;
Climate: midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains;
Terrain: Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest ;
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m, highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m;
Natural resources: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold;
Land use: arable land: 6.61%, permanent crops: 0.92%, other: 92.47% (2001);
Irrigated land: 7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: earthquakes and floods;
Environment – current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides;
Environment – international agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands;
Geography-note: Tajikistan is landlocked, with mountainous regions dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast. The highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR;

People:
Population: 7,163,506 (July 2005 est.);
Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.5% (male 1,390,220/female 1,368,268); 15-64 years: 56.7% (male 2,022,764/female 2,040,524); 65 years and over: 4.8% (male 150,372/female 191,358) (2005 est.);
Population growth rate: 2.15% (2005 est.);
Birth rate: 32.58 births/1,000 population (2005 est.);
Death rate: 8.39 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.);
Net migration rate: -2.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 110.76 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 122.35 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 98.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.56 years; male: 61.68 years; female: 67.59 years (2005 est.);
Total fertility rate: 4.05 children born/woman (2005 est.);
Nationality: noun: Tajikistani(s); adjective: Tajikistani;
Ethnic groups: Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration), other 6.6%
Religions: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi’a Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.);
Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business;
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write: total population: 99.4%; male: 99.6%; female: 99.1% (2003 est.);

Economy:
Overview: Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Only 5% to 6% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Even though 60% of its people continue to live in abject poverty, Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises will further increase productivity. Tajikistan’s economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, widespread unemployment, and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002, including an interest rate of 4%, a 3-year grace period, and a US $49.8 million credit to the Central Bank of Tajikistan.
Agriculture – products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats;
Current account balance: $-52 million (2004 est.)
Exports – partners: Netherlands 25.4%, Turkey 24.4%, Latvia 9.9%, Switzerland 9.7%, Uzbekistan 8.5%, Russia 6.6%, Iran 6.5% (2003) – (aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles);
Imports – partners: Russia 20.2%, Uzbekistan 15.1%, Kazakhstan 10.9%, Ukraine 7.1%, Azerbaijan 7.1%, Romania 4.4% (2003) – (electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foods);
Telephone system: general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network; domestic: cable and microwave radio relay; international: country code – 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations – 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat;
Internet: hosts = 69 (2004), providers = 2 (2002), users = 4,100 (2003), country code = tj;

Transnational Issues:
Disputes – international: boundary agreements signed in 2002 cede 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to China in return for China relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km of Tajikistani lands but neither state has published maps of ceded areas and demarcation has not yet commenced; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan;
Illicit drugs: major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80 percent of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium).

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan; conventional short form: Tajikistan; local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston; local short form: Tojikiston; former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic;
Government type: republic;
Capital: Dushanbe;
Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular – viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand). note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses;
Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union), is also the National Day;
Constitution: 6 November 1994;
Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative act;
Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal;
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994, head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992);
Head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999);
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly;
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president; Tajikistan held a constitutional referendum on 22 June 2003 that, among other things, set a limit of two seven-year terms for the president. Election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote – Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%;
Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; all serve five-year terms)
Elections last held: 27 February and 13 March 2000 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held NA 2010), and 23 March 2000 for the National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: Assembly of Representatives – percent of vote by party – PDPT 74%, CPT 13%, Islamic Revival Party 8%, other 5%; seats by party – PDPT 49, CPT 4, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5, vacant 3; National Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA%; seats by party – NA;
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president);
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV]; Islamic Revival Party [Said Abdullo NURI]; People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NAZRIYEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV];
Political pressure groups and leaders: there are three unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party or APT [Hikmatullo NASRIDDINOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV];
International organization participation: AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer);

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