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Index January -2006

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op-icescr – again in Geneva

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Linked with Claire Mahon, January 21, 2006.

Next op-icescr-meeting: Commission on Human Rights, open-ended working group to elaborate an optional protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (op-icescr): Geneva, 6 – 17 February, the moment when NGOs must raise their voice, when representatives of the governments meet to decide about (the value of) the Optional Protocol of the International Convent on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

These Rights should be guaranted by the ordinary Human Rights. But they are not.

Do you know that only the so called privat rights and the political rights can be claimed in justice, if not hold by a state? The economic, cultural and social rights are theoretically meant by the human rights, but can not be claimed by law, if not hold.

What is touched by these ESC rights? For instance womens equality, religious freedom, economical rights. But practically every item, every word is discussed and turned and bargained, like in a carpet souck. So, the result of what can be claimed at the end is not sure. Sure is only that the states do not want this protocol.

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Economy and Human Rights – one

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Linked to our presentation of Jaribu Hill – USA on January 31, 2006.

And linked to our presentation of HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE GLOBAL ECONOMY on January 30, 2006.

Linked also to our presentation of Mississippi Workers’ Center for Human Rights on January 31, 2006.

Regarding Economy and Human Rights, there is a website of UNPAC, Women and The Economy. They write: What comes to mind when you hear the words ‘human rights’? Heart-wrenching stories from victims of torture and trauma … What about economic human rights? (Read the rest of their texts on the link above).

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WSF 2006 in Caracas

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I sit here in Europe and I wanted just report about an important social event, the WSF 2006. But it is not possible for me to know exactly what happens in Caracas.

There are dissonant voices out of Caracas. The fact that Venezuela’s president sustain this event seems for some beeing a political manoeuvre.

Others are delighted and praise him with much enthousiasme. This is understood by some as an attempt to control politically this situation, others are grateful for this help.

Maybe we, out of the cool and well educated north, we do not like some exagerated enthousiame. I do not know if this so called T-shirt Identity is directed, manipulated, or not. If it is not just that simple people like show their love feelings, and some boring intellectuals cannot stand this.

I really cannot understand, sitting here.

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Via intros low cost, dust resistant computers

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Edited by Mike Magee in Mumbai, on Monday 23 January 2006: Chip Firm VIA introduced the Intrepid Computing project here in Mumbai today, and opened an office in the city to push that idea forward.

The Technology Innovation centre in Mumbai will develop PC-1 machines at inexpensive prices and aimed at combating dust, heat and other related problems for developing countries around the world.

The company will also create server appliances to be used for wireless mesh networking in order to provide high bandwidth machines for both town and country.

India is a perfect example of this type of market because it consists of hundreds of thousands of villages with the telecommunications not being what they might be.

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Google, Microsoft, Cisco and Skype

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Google, Microsoft, Cisco and Skype lay out their next big thing—
The CEOs of four major technology companies discussed at an Annual WEF-Meeting session the next generation of technologies that will drive the global economy. Whether it be voice net or game learning, the panellists agreed that the digitalization of everything is changing business structures.

A second broad trend identified was the extension of the transition from transaction to interaction. People’s worlds are being transformed by the parallel transition from computing to communication via the net.

The third trend the panellists discussed was the business model that creates a product out of something that is for free, building a network of users along the way. Successful businesses are then able to add value and get users to become paying consumers. This is particularly the case with Google’s sponsored links, or peer to peer voice service, Skype, which allows users to call landlines and cell phones for a fee while users may call each other for free.

European Social Forum 2006

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The European Social Forum 2006 (ESF) will take place from May 4th to May 7th 2006 in Athens.

The European Preparatory Assembly (EPA) for the European Social Forum 2006 (ESF) will take place from March 3rd to March 7th, in Frankfurt a/M (Germany).

To propose ESF06 activities-seminars: All participants are invited to propose activities/seminars (discussions, debate, theme-based meetings, testimonies, workshops, etc.) covered by the themes. All the proposals must be formulated as soon as possible until late February. However, the main bulk of the proposals must be put forward before the next EPA (7 and 8 January 2006).

A separate forum

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By NATALIE OBIKO PEARSON: Associated Press — The World Social Forum started as an alternative to the market-friendly World Economic Forum, but now there’s an alternative to the alternative – Annoyed by all the focus on Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, some anti-globalization activists have split from the World Social Forum to hold their own “Alternative Social Forum” in the Venezuelan capital.

Disgruntled activists complain the ubiquitous red T-shirts of Chavez’s party and rows of promotional booths are everywhere at the main event, stifling debate and undermining the forum’s capacity to act as a catalyst for social change.

“The World Social Forum was born as an alternative,” said Luis Silva, 35, an organizer of the dissident forum. “But little by little it has succumbed to political parties and governments. It’s acting as a stage of support for Chavez.”

The seven-day alternative symposium shares some of the anti-capitalist themes dominating the World Social Forum, which has drawn more than 60,000 people from around the globe and coincides with the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

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WSF 2006 – Virtual Forum of Discussion

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To participte in the virtual space with your own statement, go to the following pages. You will find there the following six discussions:

1). For communications, cultures and education: dynamic and alternative democratisation;

2). Work, exploitation(development) and reproduction of the life;

3) Diversities, identities and cosmovisions in movement;

4) Resources and rights for the life: alternatives to the model predator civilizations.

5) Imperial strategies and resistances of the peoples(villages).

6) Power, politics and your fight for the social emancipation.

A Survival Guide for Caracas

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Look at this link for a survival guide, if you really go to Caracas. My personal comment: a little bit of paranoia is never dangerous.

Thematic axes of the WSF 2006

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(See WSF 2006).

1. Power, politics and you fight for the social emancipation. New bosses of global power: relations between(among) movements, social organizations, parties(games) and State. Balance and perspectives of the struggles against the capitalism neoliberal in the American continent and in the world. Relations between(among) politics and economy.

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WSF 2006 – Caracas

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UNI-Americas at the 6th World Social Forum: Within the framework of the many activities taking place in Caracas, Venezuela, on the occasion of the 6th World Social Forum, the representatives of UNI Americas, Rodolfo Benìtez and Marcio Monzane, on 24 January participated in the coordination meetings held by the Global Union Federations (GUFs), to discuss progress in their joint actions in the Americas. To that end, continuation of the campaigns in Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico was emphasised.

Then the representatives of the GUFs in the Americas met the General Secretary of ORIT, Vìctor Baèz. The ORIT leader gave a progress report on the regional talks regarding the process of forming a new world trade union confederation. Both Baèz and the GUF representatives reaffirmed their commitment to continue their support for that ICFTU-WCL initiative.

On 25 of January, UNI AMERICAS’ Regional Secretary took part in a panel on decent work as a fundamental basis for sustainable development, the world employment programme, and labour rights, serving as the panel’s moderator. The panel brought together some 500 people participating in the trade-union forum. UNI AMERICAS will hold two events during the world forum: one on Walmartisation and the other on the integration of the world financial system into the needs of society.
See website Union Network International; and mail.

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WSF 2006 – an electronic space for all

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This electronic space is created as a workspace for organisations/ networks/ groups to interact with each other for the purpose of registering and preparing activities in the WSF2006 Polycentric Event or for continued activities in the WSF Process.

To become an individual member of the electronic space, please click here.

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The Mali session of the polycentric World Social Forum (WSF) is an opportunity to set the tone for discussions that are to follow in Venezuela and Pakistan, says chief executive Ramesh Singh of Action Aid International, by Paula Fray, IPS.

ActionAid is an international development agency that targets poverty in 42 countries worldwide.

Mali, one of the poorest countries in the world, is hosting the first WSF session ahead of those in Caracas, Venezuela next week and the Karachi, Pakistan, session in March.

“Hosting this session in Bamako recognises that the WSF has spread and has taken root in many continents and not just in Porto Alegre. It is a much more broadbased and diversified space for discussions.

“Secondly, the Mali session is important because Africa will host the WSF in 2007 and it will help prepare for that,” says Singh. Nairobi, Kenya, is the host city for the 2007 WSF. Singh believes the Bamako event is also an opportunity to regroup and strategise.

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Advance the Agenda for Decent Work in Africa

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The International Confederation of free Trade Unions ICFT online publishes:

At the World Social Forum in Bamako: Forming Alliances to Advance the Agenda for Decent Work in Africa 23/1/2006 – Within the framework of the Bamako World Social Forum (Mali), the two international trade union confederations, ICFTU and WCL, in partnership with the Global Progressive Forum (GPF) and Solidar, hosted a debate on decent work.

“Poverty must be eradicated through employment” were the opening words pronounced by ICFTU Assistant General Secretary Mamounata Cissé at this work session bringing together trade unionists, mainly African and European, and civil society activists from around the world. Her ideas were reiterated by one of the WSF’s main organisers and promoters, Aminata Traoré, who warned that the concept of decent work was floundering. “If there is one region of the world where the notion of decent work is relevant, it is clearly Africa,” she affirmed, denouncing the empty promises of globalisation and the practices of western multinationals, which exploit the continent’s natural resources without any regard for the welfare of its peoples.

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Bamako WSF 2006 – updated

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Thematic and methodological proposals of Bamako WSF 2006 – updated on January 23, 2006.

The themes which are being discussed in Bamako are formulated under a common approach to countries.They and are not specific only to the African continent. Although they are being considered with a particular feeling, they come from experiences through common fight and dialogue between social movements around the world. They take into account the different themes selected by the polycentric forums organized in Caracas and Karacachi.

The major themes to be developped during the forum are as follows:

1. War and Militarism-Security and Peace: economical war; international relationships militarism; military occupation of territories and people; criminalization of social fights; violence; “Civilizations’ war”; cultural and economical misery and war justification; violence and access to power and resources.

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WSF 2006 BAMAKO – World Court of Women

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Women from around the world denounced the social ills affecting them at a women’s court at the World Social Forum yesterday. The World Court of Women sat to hear women talk about how they had been affected by numerous aspects of globalisation, an issue that has dominated this year’s WSF in Bamako. By Joyce Mulama, IPS.

Set up in 1992, the court is a symbolic process that holds public hearings on crimes against women, including the violation of their rights. The court’s theme for this year’s WSF is: Resistance to Wars – Wars of Globalisation, Wars Against Women.”

At yesterday’s sitting, women from Africa spoke fiercely about the challenges of globalisation. “We know that we have paid a hard price for globalisation. It is critical to understand the process and what it has done to poor countries, particularly women and children,” Aminata Traore, a social activist and former Malian minister for tourism said.

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WSF 2006 – Third World Dept

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Linked to our presentation of Eric Toussaint – Belgium on January 23, 2006.

On December 5, 2005, Eric Toussaint, Président of CADTM (Comité pour l’Annulation de la Dette du Tiers Monde / Committee for the Abolition of the Third World Dept), has given the following interview to Sergio Gerrari:

The next World Social Forum is to be… polycentric …

To grasp the potential of the World Social Forum (WSF) you first need to evaluate the present state of the social movement on a global scale, given the close relationship between the forums and mobilisation. « In that respect, I am very optimistic, if the increase in mobilisation in 2005 is anything to go by », asserts Eric Toussaint, a Belgian historian and activist and president of the Belgium-based Committee for the Abolition of the Third World Debt (CADTM).

Eric Toussaint – who is also a member of the WSF’s International Council (i.e. the coordinators) considers that this next step « needs a clear definition of the priorities of the citizens’ agenda on a global level ». The process is already under way … or at least, it has begun.

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WSF 2006 – Another Africa is possible

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Social movements organize to challenge dominant economic policies, by Joan Baxter, Bamako. (See the web African Renewal).

… The African Social Forum, as it was called, did seem to mark a step towards better organization and coordination among Africa’s social movements on basic development issues. But it was not clear that the participants were as successful in coming up with alternatives to the existing economic order. They had many slogans against prevailing economic policies and problems, and agreed on a firm rejection of “neo-liberal globalization,” but had more difficulty developing a common voice on specific policy alternatives.

The forum’s final consensus read more like a dream than a practical working plan. “Our alternative vision is for a human-centred world,” it read. “The future of the African people lies in the hands of African peoples.” And it expressed “solidarity with all forces in Africa that are committed to the realization of real alternatives.”

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WSF 2006 BAMAKO – Immigration Questions

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‘Think global, act local’ is a well-known slogan in environmental circles. But is it also useful for tackling the problems that stem from illegal immigration – particularly the hardships experienced by migrants who face expulsion, and those sent back to their home countries? By Jacklynne Hobbs, IPS.

A French non-governmental organisation, the Education Without Borders Network, assists young migrants and their families to legalise their status. Judging by the debate on immigration that took place Saturday at the Centre International de Conference de Bamako, success stories … are still relatively hard to come by. For the most part, migration from Africa to Europe – and from Latin America to the United States – was seen as presenting problems for which there were no easy solutions. (Read the rest here).

WSF 2006 – Some Hard Questions

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This note is to ask some hard questions about the World Social Forum, with the aim of raising some debate on it in the run-up to the world meetings that are coming up later this month. By Jai Sen,

The step, of moving from single-centric Fora to polycentric ones, is ­ as a step in the development of the World Social Forum – as important as the holding of the Forum outside Brazil and in Mumbai, India, in January 2004. But given this significance, and behind this the significance of the World Social Forum as an emerging world institution and as an institution of civil politics, it is important, and perhaps of no small interest, that there is hardly any debate about the polycentric Forum, either as individual meetings or as a collective. Even on the official WSF website, in its Library of Alternatives, there are only two articles ­ and then too, the two are both in Spanish, despite the fact that the three Fora are being held in
English-speaking, French-speaking, and Spanish-speaking parts of the world, and where this distribution was presumably a very careful and intentional decision.

Compared with the storm of articles that the Forum generated in earlier years, this is stunning. What is happening ? Why is there no discussion ? Has the Forum run its course? (Read the rest on

WSF – Tackle Corruption, Cancel Debt

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BAMAKO, Jan 20 (IPS) – Mali, one of the international community’s poorest nations and host of the World Social Forum (WSF), presents the picture of a country that has been overburdened by debt. Government spends much of its budget repaying what is owed to international creditors – at the expense of development, by Joyce Mulama, IPSnews.

This financial outflow has prompted Malian campaigners to call for debt cancellation. On Friday, these activists teamed up with others from across the world to lobby rich nations to cancel all debts owed by poor nations.

“Debt is a stumbling block to our development,” said Diarra Sekou of the Coalition for African Alternatives to Debt and Development.

“Health facilities are run down, with a very insufficient number of health workers. There are no teachers in schools (and) schools cannot progress because the quality of teachers is very bad; this is because they cannot be paid well, as the government is concentrating on paying off its debt.”

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World Social Forum in Bamako, Mali

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The World Social Forum of Bamako is planed as a space to make credible alternatives for “Another Possible World”. It is of paramount importance to People in Africa who are victimized of the neo liberal system which is itself synonymous to violence, suffering, and poverty and exclusion to over one third of the global population.

This meeting will thus offer to progressive forces in Africa a very first opportunity, following to the huge range of popular resistances during the nineties, to significantly set their fights and their alternatives in a global seeking of the construction of a fair world with more solidarity and respectful of People’s sovereignty.

The forum of Bamako takes roots both in the rich Malian and African cultural soil which makes Mali’s cultural patrimony. This meeting will thus offer the opportunity to visitors to find out Mali’s past and present symbolic places such as Djénné, the fascinating city, the mystic dogon country, and Tombouctou the mysterious .

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World Social Forum (WSF) 2006

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This year the World Social Forum (WSF) will be held simultaneously in 3 different cities around the world, namely

- Bamako, capital of Mali, 19th to 23rd January;

- Caracas, capital of Venezuela, from 24th to 29th January; and

- Karachi, in Pakistan, capital of the province of Sindh, previously planned to take place from January 24th to 29th, 2006, has been delayed in 2 months. This delay is one of the consequences brought by the earthquake that took place in Pakistan this year’s October. The new date for the polycentric event will be decided after consulting the Asian Council and the WSF International Council. A national forum will be held in Lahore/Pakistan on January 23rd and 24th , 2006.


World Social Forum;


Governance in post-conflict societies

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(Excerpt from a long article of 55 pages on

The first section of this paper takes stock of the current discussion on governance in post-conflict societies. It presents a functional differentiation of the three “dimensions of governance”, specifically security, politics/administration and the economy. This section concludes with a brief description of the key actors involved and a discussion of gender roles in post-conflict societies, an issue that crosses all three dimensions of governance.

Successfully promoting good governance in post-conflict societies depends on a number of issues, particularly the way in which the conflict was settled, the actions undertaken by the international community in order to stabilise the post-conflict environment, and the extent to which statehood has been weakened or destroyed during the time of conflict. Chances for consolidating peace and improving governance are certainly best where the conflict parties themselves negotiate a settlement and are merely supported and monitored by the international community. A high degree of ownership also means that the parties involved are more likely to compromise in order to gain the higher good, peace.

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Gender and Good Governance

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Linked to our presentation of What is UNRISD? on January 8, 2006.

Gender Equality – Striving for Justice in an Unequal World
. Policy Report on Gender and Development: 10 Years after Beijing, 336 Pages.

From Chapter 11 – Gender and “good governance”
Whether policy makers can take steps to reduce women’s poverty or address gender injustice depends upon the implementation of policies on the ground. Signing up to international treaties and passing legislation—on issues such as women’s rights, equal access to education, rape in marriage, and equal eligibility to credit and property ownership—is only a first step. Legislation and policy has to be translated into government directives, budgetary allocations, institutional arrangements, bureaucratic procedures and monitoring standards. The connection between political commitment and effective policy implementation is expressed in the concept of “governance”. Programmes of governance reform have consumed considerable international and national attention in the recent past and present.

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Good governance – and sustainable human development

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Here a Text out of the United Nations in … 1994! Have we reached the goal? Look yourself. (An UNDP policy document).

The goal of governance initiatives should be to develop capacities that are needed to realise development that gives priority to the poor, advances women, sustains the environment and creates needed opportunities for employment and other livelihoods.

UNDP 1994 Initiatives for Change

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has been at the forefront of the growing international consensus that good governance and sustainable human development are indivisible. And we believe that developing the capacity for good governance can be – and should be – the primary way to eliminate poverty. Notions of good governance and the link between governance and sustainable human development vary greatly, however, both in academic literature and among development practitioners.

So, what is sustainable human development?

We define human development as expanding the choices for all people in society. This means that men and women – particularly the poor and vulnerable – are at the centre of the development process. It also means “protection of the life opportunities of future generations…and…the natural systems on which all life depends” (UNDP, Human Development Report 1996). This makes the central purpose of development the creation of an enabling environment in which all can enjoy long, healthy and creative lives.

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Good Governance against Good Government ?

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Linked to our presentation of Rémy Herrera – France on January 22, 2006.

Published in 10 years on March 2, 2004, by Rémy HERRERA.

Since the beginning of the 1990s, the major international organizations, first and foremost among them International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, have been lavishing upon their member countries recommendations for “good governance”. However, the definitions of this term and, along with them, its substance, have varied noticeably from one institution to another, preventing the formulation of a precise legal definition – particularly since governance can also be global, corporate…

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Good governance and good health

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Research article – found on BMC, International Health and Human Rights:

Good governance and good health – The role of societal structures in the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic, by Anatole S Menon-Johansson (he has a mil link on their website).

(© 2005 Menon-Johansson; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. )

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Good Governance at work

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The Center for Human Rights in Pretoria South Africa gives a course in Good Governance from 23. Jan. to 3. Febr. 06. Contact: Tel: +27 12 420 4525 / 4948, Fax: +27 12 362 5125, General Tel: (Centre for Human Rights) +27 12 420 3810, Email:, Website:

The site Campaign for Good Governance, Sierra Leone, proposes to reach the goals for Freedom, Democracy and Gender Equality by sustaining Good Governance.

Same by this site for Lebanon. Many ongoing events in January 2006.

This site of the looks at Governance and Anti-Corruption, with, on this specific site, the main thema put on youth.

Independent Commission on Good Governance in Public Services: 11 January 2005 Press release: Launch of the Good Governance Standard for Public Services. You may download here their 40 page-pdf-doku named ‘Standard for Public Services’.

Here you find the discussion paper no 3 on ‘Corruption and Good Governance’, and the links to them.

Here the site US AID, Democracy and Governance.

UN-HABITAT, the Global United Nations Campaign on Urban Governance;

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UNHCHR and Good Governance

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The United Nations UNHCHR also participate on Good Governance as a necessity for development and humans well beeing.

See on their sites the informations given on any aspect of the question. For instance about the item

Assistance for good governance:

In September 2000, the UN Consultative Committee on Programme and Operational Questions (CCPOQ) approved, on behalf of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), the ACC Matrix of Governance, setting out policy measures, core elements and areas of programmatic collaboration for the United Nations system.

The policy measures are democracy and participation, equity, environmental protection and management, human rights, the rule of law, public administration and service delivery, transparency and accountability, security, peace-building and conflict management, informed citizenry, and electronic governance (e-governance).

The core elements and areas of programmatic collaboration draw on human rights concepts such as participation, accountability, non-discrimination, empowerment and express-linkage to human rights.

See also, for instance, their

Declaration on the Right to Development, Adopted by General Assembly resolution 41/128, of December 4, 1986:

The General Assembly,

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A Canadian view of Good Governance

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The Canadian International Development Agency (websites are published also in french) is a good resource for more information. Human Rights, Democratization, and specially Good Governance are treaten, documents are available, many partners and links proposed.

They write: Governance refers to the manner in which power is exercised by governments in managing a country’s social and economic resources. “Good” governance is the exercise of power by various levels of government that is effective, honest, equitable, transparent and accountable. Programming for good governance includes a wide range of activity areas. Public sector development increases bureaucratic effectiveness through organizational, administrative and policy reform; decentralizing government, both internally and externally (to a range of supranational institutions) extends effectiveness and accountability by bringing government to all appropriate constituency levels; working against existing and potential corruption enables all the positive attributes of good governance listed above; independent, accessible and even-handed legal and judicial systems underpin honest and equitable governance; effective urban government satisfies many of the basic needs of large populations, easing the task at more distant levels of government.

Go to their website for many links to connect to useful documents and websites by CIDA partners.

More about Good Governance

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Good Governance is more needed than ever. Not only Governments and Elite Institutions have to reflect about these values, we all are concerned. Here more inputs given by the Civil Society:

The terms governance and good governance are being increasingly used in development literature. Governance describes the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Hereby, public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources, and guarantee the realization of human rights. Good governance accomplishes this in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law.

Good governance defines an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal.

Good governance can be understood as a set of 8 major characteristics: participation, rule of law, transparency, responsiveness, consensus oriented, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency and accountability.

These characteristics assure that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. Read the whole article on

What is Good Governance?

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UN ESCAP writes on its website: GOVERNANCE: The concept of “governance” is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put “governance” means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national governance and local governance. … GOOD GOVERNANCE has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society. Read the rest here.

World Institute for Development Economics Research WIDER

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Seminars, Conferences, Lectures, Studies, Projects, Publications – concerning Development, Wealth, Globalization, Health and more – realised by this Institute of the United Nations University. See all on this link.

Reaction on African Aid

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Dear Madam Heidi,

I have read in our website your article ?Problems with African Aid?. You put the questions and the problems very straight and also offered some keys of the solutions.

?Things have to really change for the better there, and that has to start with liberalizing the economies, stabilizing the social unrest, and introducing some sort of a democratic norm?.?

I think such problems are exciting in many poor countries: the countries are recovering after civil wars or suffered by other governments and the countries living for a long time with poor economy systems.

Three things you mentioned:

- liberalizing the economies

- stabilizing the social unrest

- introducing some sort of a democratic norm

are main roots and they are very depending from each other.

Without some democratic norms it is hard to achieve liberalization of economy and therefore to keep social stabilization in the country. And you are right, democratic norms should come first from the families and relationships between people. It has to become part of culture of people.

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Problems with African Aid

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I found an old article written by Gosha on the website But first I would like to give some comments to the question, that we have to pay and pay and pay again and again African, to help them to come up economically.

As concerning Africa there are two more hidden realities. The way how Africans manage their economic surviving is not really helping them:

1) – Forgive me to say it, but MEN in Africa have a destructive behavior with money they receive. WOMAN are more able to use the received money REALLY for what it has been given. This is an old experience of humanitarian organisations, even 30 years ago. Then, the organisation I was with had always given the needed money directly in the hand of (only) women. And as long as I can observe it today, this item has not changed since, in any way.

2) -The behavior, never letting die hungry a member of the family, turns into a destructive situation, as soon as one member of a family earns some more money, making him able to lodge and feed his own children in a comfortable way: then the rest of the big clan jumps on this person, coming to him and ask for free eating and lodging. This is happening here in Europe when the members of a big family out of Africa follow their first arriving son .

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